By Witold Gombrowicz
Witold Gombrowicz (1904-1969), novelist, essayist, and playwright, used to be essentially the most very important Polish writers of the 20 th century. A candidate for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1968, he used to be defined by means of Milan Kundera as “one of the nice novelists of our century” and by way of John Updike as “one of the profoundest of the overdue moderns.”
Gombrowicz’s works have been thought of scandalous and subversive via the ruling powers in Poland and have been banned for almost 40 years. He spent his final years in France instructing philosophy; this booklet is a chain of reflections in line with his lectures.
Gombrowicz discusses Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard, Sartre, and Heidegger in six “one-hour” essays and addresses Marxism in a shorter “fifteen-minute” piece. The text—a small literary gem choked with sardonic wit, amazing insights, and provocative criticism—constructs the philosophical lineage of his work.
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Additional info for A Guide to Philosophy in Six Hours and Fifteen Minutes
2. The State is the mind which blossoms in becoming the world’s form and organization. Next he analyzes various forms of government. And he submits it to the dialectical process: the capitalist government provokes an opposing dictatorship, that of the proletariat. The dictatorship of the proletariat leads to a superior form which will know how to combine the good points of each previous form, etc. Thesis—antithesis—synthesis. You understand how greedily the Communiststhrew themselves on this idea.
Yet the concept of thing, in order to reach fullness, must inevitably insert time and space, since the Cosmos signifies absolutely everything that exists. We see a contradiction here, since the Cosmos must be unlimited in time and space in order to include absolutely everything. It is this way when you take an object; you can divide it endlessly. There are no limits for it. The idea of an object therefore contains a contradiction because it must be limited and unlimited at the same time. Third antinomyof the idea of the Cosmos.
Kant proceeds with three analyses three sections of the Critique of Pure Reason. But since the subject is reason, or organized knowledge, everything must be based on synthetic knowledge. It is science which formulates synthetic, a priorijudgments (that is, eternal). First part: Transcendental Aesthetics. (Transcendent means something outside of the self). Aesthetics used in the mathematical sense. Mathematics: science of forms and relationships. In this first part: How are synthetic a priorijudgments possible in mathematics?