Advances in Cryogenic Engineering Materials : Volume 46, by J. Gerhold (auth.), U. Balu Balachandran, K. Ted Hartwig,

By J. Gerhold (auth.), U. Balu Balachandran, K. Ted Hartwig, Donald U. Gubser, Victoria A. Bardos (eds.)

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I. The texture of the martensite crystals is also formed under these conditions. It is assumed that the formation of the martensite texture during low temperature deformation (240-77 K) of the alloys studied contributes significantly to their plasticity increase. INTRODUCTION When fcc metals and alloys undergo deformation, their dislocation structure changes and substructures such as chaotic, dislocation pileups, inhomogenous net, cellular, twinning and other formations develop in a certain sequence [I].

Texture of deformation-induced a-martensite in Fe-18Cr-lONi crystal [100]; T = 240 K, (, = 20 %; magnification = x 600. 24 Martensite transformations influence the alloy plasticity in ditlerent ways: in Fe-Cr-Ni alloys the plasticity is high if during deformation the martensite transformation is weak, and vice versa. In the Fe-18Cr-15Ni alloy, where the martensite is not formed by cooling, the intensity of the formation of the deformation-induced martensite is dependent on the deformation temperature and the crystal structure (single or polycrystal).

5K) I N; [T, ~300Kl N,~~en. I! []J "---- -----\. _",,~ 10 0,0001 0,001 0,01 0,1 Spacing, d [mm] Figure 17. Breakdown voltage defradation of vapor filled gaps with heat input. 5 MJ nf 16 *) heat the gas cannot expand due to flow restrictions. The high vapor gas density is maintained then, and the withstand voltage across the heated gap remains practically unaffected. The worst scenario on the other hand comes out when the gas can expand unimpeded without being pressurized. The heat absorbing amount of gas decreases in course of the temperature rise, and the ultimate gas density reduction pr ipnbt comes out with (5) The specific heat cp is assumed to be constant for simplicity.

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