By I. G. Craig, N. W. Nash, G. A. Oldfield (auth.), C. P. Ellinas (eds.)
Dr C P Ellinas complex Mechanics & Engineering Ltd significant advances were accomplished in recent times in subsea pipeline layout and set up. Inspection, upkeep and service have additionally obtained a lot realization. the improvement of marginal fields has introduced with it exact difficulties, that have necessitated novel equipment and strategies. in the mean time curiosity within the improvement of deepwater fields keeps with the improvement of latest expertise. This convention has positioned emphasis in addressing advancements in pipeline know-how below 4 major headings: pipeline/seabed interplay; versatile pipelines; pipeline layout, fabrication and deploy; deepwater functions. Advances in North Sea know-how over the past few years were involved more often than not with marginal fields, small diameter pipelines and new fabrics, that are good coated within the first 3 subject matters. financial improvement of marginal fields calls for processing of oil and fuel to happen no longer on the wellhead yet at latest amenities, frequently far away. Hydrocarbons are therefore usually transported at excessive strain and temperature in small diameter pipelines, which must be secure via trenching. notwithstanding, such operational perform has dropped at the fore an issue that previously was once of little obstacle particularly, upheaval buckling.
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Additional resources for Advances in Subsea Pipeline Engineering and Technology: Papers presented at Aspect ’90, a conference organized by the Society for Underwater Technology and held in Aberdeen, Scotland, May 30–31, 1990
Many trenches dug ten years ago are still visible as shallow depressions in the seabed. The slow movement of bottom currents and slow sedimentation rate make natural backfilling a long process. 5 to 2 metres deep and 3 to 4 metres wide may have slowly collapsed and assisted burial. PIPELINE DEBURIAL 41 When it comes to deburial this "disturbed'" backfill can be very much weaker than the original undisturbed material still forming the trench walls. different characteristics. It will probably have quite These characteristics depend to a large extent on the type of trenching machine used to dig the trench.
The lateral buckles formed horizontal imperfections at which the majority of all subsequent movements were concentrated. 32 ADVANCES IN SUBSEA PIPELINE ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY The independence and flexibility of the hot water flushing technique avoided the schedule extensions and delays which rock dumping would have introduced. The operation was not without its difficulties but these were typical of offshore construction work. The relative smoothness of execution was due in large part to the use of standard equipment with experienced offshore contractors, supported by the resources and commitment of the Ba lmora 1 FPV operations staff.
Prior deburial may be required to reduce loading. PIPELINE DEBURIAL 39 IMPORTANT FACTORS IN DEBURIAL Just as the methodology of burying a pipeline is heavily influenced by the soil characteristics so is that of deburial. Deburial is not a simple reversal of the burial technique as the parameters are different. A pipeline will not float neatly back to seabed level when uncovered. Burial of a 1 metre diameter pipeline in 2 metres of mobile sand by fluidisation simply required the pipeline to sink under its own weight into the ground.