Advancing Sustainability through Green Chemistry and by Rebecca L. Lankey, Paul T. Anastas

By Rebecca L. Lankey, Paul T. Anastas

content material: desktop generated contents notice: 1. Sustainability via eco-friendly Chemistry and Engineering Paul T. Anastas and Rebecca L. Lankey 2. Sustainable improvement via business Ecology Joseph Fiksel three. examine and improvement wishes for an absolutely Sustainable Biocommodity Charles E. Wyman four. Tetraamido Macrocyclic Ligand Catalytic Oxidant Activators within the Pulp and Paper Terrence J. Collins, Colin P. Horwitz, Alexander D. Ryabov, Leonard D. Vuocolo, Sayam S. Gupta, Anindya Ghosh, Nadine L. Fattaleh, Yelda Hangun, Bradley Steinhoff, Christopher A. Noser, Evan seashore, Duane Prasuhn, Jr, Trevor Stuthridge, Kathryn G. Wingate, Jenny corridor, L. James Wright, Ian Suckling, and Robert W. Allison five. Spinosad: A eco-friendly usual Product for Insect Contol Gary D. Thompson and Tom C. Sparks 6. towards Benign Synthesis through Catalytic Oxidations utilizing Dioxygen or Nitrous Oxide Klaus H. Theopold, Olivia M. Reinaud, Sebastien Blanchard, Somying Leelasubcharoen, Alexandra Hess, and Sunita Thyagarajan 7. An Environmentally Benign Catalytic Polyoxometalate know-how for remodeling wooden Pulp into Paper Ira A. Weinstock, Elena M.G. Barbuzzi, Dan M. Sonnen, and Craig L. Hill eight. Enhancement of Herbicide and Insecticide job with Thermal Polyaspartate Ramon Georgis, Robert J. Ross, and Larry P. Koskan nine. utilizing Atom move Radical Polymerization in Environmentally Benign tactics Scott Gaynor, Jian Qiu, and Krzysztof Matyjaszewski 10. producing Benign replacement Syntheses: The SynGen software James B. Hendrickson eleven. improvement of a versatile approach for the Simultaneous Conversion of Biomass to Indhustrial chemical substances and the construction of commercial Biocatalysts Johnway Gao, Brian S. Hooker, Rodney S. Skeen, and Daniel B. Anderson 12. Radiation Chemistry: the foundation for an Inherently eco-friendly method know-how Anthony J. Berejka thirteen. cheap Composites and Plastics from Renewable assets: half I: Synthesis of Monomers and Polymers Richard P. Wool, Shrikant N. Khot, John J. LaScala, Shana P. Bunker, Jue Lu, Wim Thielemans, Erde Can, Shantaram S. Morye, and George I. Williams 14. reasonable Composites and Plastics from Renewable assets: half II: Manufacture of Composites Richard P. Wool, Shrikant iN Khot, John J. LaScala, Shana P. Bunker, Jue Lu, Win Thielemans, Erde Cam, Shantaram S. Morye, and George 1. Williams 15. towards a eco-friendly Chemistry and Engineering answer for the U.S. power undefined: lowering Emissions and changing Waste Streams into Value-Added items M.M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer, John M. Andersen, and Yinzhi Zhang Indexes writer Index topic Index.

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Although directed at bioethanol, all of the key steps through hemicellulose and cellulose hydrolysis are applicable to the production of biomass sugars ("biosugars") that can be used to make many other products. 60/gal in the 1980 timeframe to a value competitive with ethanol from corn now (5,14, I7). However, these cost projections are measures of research progress based on a number of needed assumptions and simplifications, and processing costs will be sensitive to variabilities in feedstock costs, project financing approach, technology used, and other factors that require more detailed estimates.

Thus, development and commercialization of new processing technologies that targets these important applications merits priority. Hemicellulose and cellulose in biomass can be broken down to release sugars that can be fermented or chemically reacted into many commodity products. The lignin portion can be burned to provide heat and electricity to power the conversion process and for export, while biomass protein could be recovered for food and feed applications. The minerals in biomass could also be employed for commercial products.

Cellulosic biomass is made up of about 40 to 50% cellulose, 25 to 30% hemicellulose, 10 to 18% lignin, and lesser amounts of minerals, solubles, protein, and other components (/). Acids or enzymes can hydrolyze cellulose to glucose sugar while five sugars (arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, and xylose) are usually produced when acids or enzymes act on hemicellulose. As illustrated in Figure 2, these sugars can be fermented to various products such as ethanol and other alcohols, organic acids, glycols, and aldehydes, or the fermentation products or sugars themselves can be chemically transformed into products, opening up more possibilities (J, 9).

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