By Aquino De Braganca, Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein
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Extra info for The African Liberation Reader, Volume 2: The National Liberation Movements
From 1957 until 1961 he worked for the United Nations as a research officer on trust territories - thus becoming acquainted with the problems of the independence struggle in other parts of Africa and the world. Yet Dr. Mondlane's eyes were still fixed upon Mozambique. With the independence of Tanganyika in December, 1961, Mondlane saw new oppor tunities opening for the creation of a national movement to challenge the Portuguese. He had maintained contact with Mozambican groups outside of the country which had been formed to struggle for independence.
Between 1506 and 1507, there existed already 2,000 slaves on the sugar-cane plantations of both islands, not counting 5-6,000 slaves for sale. In 1517, sugar-cane production was so extensive that it became necessary to enact a 'law on the sale of sugar'. In both the cities and in the plantations, the relations between Whites and Blacks were established on the basis of a royal decree that 'each colonist must take a woman and give her children'. From the beginning, the plantation owners represented the privileged group who appropriated the land and domestic property.
The peasantry of the South were the last to lay down their arms against expansionist Portugal, for the last murderous campaigns, the military cam paigns of Cuamato, Humbe, and Huila, occur in 1919-20, following upon the previous ones in Cuando, Cubano, Bie, Moxico and Huambo. It is not without reason that the leaders of UNITA established the party in this anti-colonial milieu. It is a well-mobilized milieu, from which the revo lution may spread to the rest of the country. No-one, not even the Fascist bourgeoisie who conducts the war, is ignorant of the revolutionary qualities of the Southern peasants.